MD Biosciences has extensive experience in the application of immunohistochemistry to analysis of markers of interest in tissue. Our validated protocols permit such assessments as lymphocyte analysis, cellular proliferation, cellular activation/differentiation, inflammation, biomarker analysis, and much more. View high-resolution whole slide image examples of our IHC staining results below!
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IHC Marker: Ki67
Staining for Ki-67 can be used to aid in assessing the proliferative activity of normal and neoplastic tissue
IHC Marker: CD68
CD68 is an intracellular glycoprotein associated with the cell membrane of macrophages and some myeloid elements.
IHC Marker: CD45
CD45 Can aid in the identification of normal and abnormal cells of leukocytic lineage.
IHC Marker: CD34
CD34 can demonstrate early hematopoietic cells, vascular-associated tissue as well as endothelial cells in certain tissue types.
IHC Marker: CD31
CD31 is expressed by stem cells of the hematopoietic system and is primarily used to identify and concentrate these cells for experimental studies as well as for bone marrow transplantation. Endothelial cells also express this marker, and anti-CD31 IHC has been used as a tool to identify vascular-associated tissues.
IHC Marker: Pan cytokeratin
The keratins are a family of fibrous structural proteins that are useful in the identification of tissues of epithelial origin.
IHC Marker: PD-L1
PD-L1 is a transmembrane protein that down-regulates immune responses through binding to its two receptors programmed death-1 (PD-1) and B7-1 (CD80).1 PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor expressed on T cells following T-cell activation, which is sustained in states of chronic stimulation such as in chronic infection or cancer.
IHC Marker: CD19
CD19 is present in both normal and malignant B-cells and has long been considered to be the most reliable surface marker of this lineage over a wide range of maturational stages. In normal lymphoid tissue, CD19 is observed in germinal centers, mantle zone cells, and scattered cells in the inter-follicular areas. Anti-CD19 exhibits an overall immuno-reactivity pattern similar to those of the antibodies against CD20 and CD22. However, in contrast to CD20, CD19 is also expressed in immature B-cells.
IHC Marker: CD7
CD7 is present in thymocytes and mature T cells. Anti-CD7 IHC can be used to aid in the assessment of T cell lymphomas.
IHC MARKER: CD3
Staining below demonstrates anti-CD3 IHC. CD3 is the T-cell co-receptor and is considered a Pan-T Cell Iineage marker. T cells are seen surrounding B Cell Follicles in the below tonsillar tissue, demonstrating rich T-cell zones and interspersed t-cells within follicles.
IHC Marker: Bcl-2
Bcl-2 is expressed by B cells of the mantle zone and inter-follicular T cells.
IHC MARKER: CD22
CD22 is a transmembrane glycoprotein which plays a role in the regulation of B cell function. CD22 is initially expressed in the cytoplasm of pro-B and pre-B cells, and then on the surface as B cells mature to become IgD+.
IHC marker: CD5
CD5 is expressed on the plasma membrane of virtually all human T cells and the B1a subset of human B cells found in the follicular mantle zones, bone marrow and peripheral blood. Staining of CD5 is commonly used as part of several IHC panels to determine T cell and B cell sub-classifications.
IHC marker: CD23
CD23 antigen is a membrane glycoprotein identified as a low affinity receptor for IgE production as well as a receptor for lymphocyte growth factor. CD23 is found in some mature B-cell lymphomas and in Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin disease. Follicular dendritic cells and some activated B-cells within germinal centers express CD23 in high density and mantle zone B-cells are stained weakly.